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A Better Workplace
Is Upon Us

Understand the power of Real-time Visibility (RtV)
to heal the organization and bring fulfillment to work


Part 1:
The Near Future of Work

Remote work, automation, AI, freelancing, the four-hour workweek, and borderless talent acquisition are among the forces that are shaping the work methods and cultures of tomorrow. Many of these changes are well on their way. By the turn of this decade, for example, almost 80% of organizations scaling intelligent automation indicated they will permit intelligent machines to render complex or mission-critical decisions within a few years. [1]

Yet another force - tech-enabled Real-time Visibility (RtV) at work - is on a path to alter the methods and culture of work in the very near future. Remarkably, this force could more substantively impact how we work than all of the forces mentioned above, combined.

RtV in employee performance holds the key to dramatic improvements in productivity and fulfillment at work. That’s because RtV systemically aligns incentives at work and enables leaders to make much better decisions faster.

The employee performance conundrum

Employee performance is foundational to any organization's success. What’s more, workers’ productivity is a key driver of GDP.

“Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise its output per worker”

Paul Krugman - The Age of Diminishing Expectations (1994) [2]

Yet, our standard measures of individual employee performance, especially in the knowledge economy, are woefully inadequate. While we can easily divide total output by the number of workers to derive an average performance, understanding an individual’s performance is nebulous, at best. 

Companies attempt to get at this from many angles: [3]

  • Set measurable OKRs and individual goals;
  • Benchmark performance by implementing "sprints";
  • Utilize project or task management tools;
  • Track training completion metrics;
  • Perform a skills gap analysis; or, most commonly
  • Conduct annual, highly qualitative, 360 reviews.

For anyone with practical experience in the corporate world, performance measurement is a painfully familiar problem.

Over-engineering KPIs to incentivize employee performance can stifle innovation - and it often fails to adjust quickly enough to dynamic environments. And we are not even talking about the tremendous effort required to engineer those in the first place, nor the corresponding motivations of employees to “game” these same KPIs. 

On the other hand, relying on the traditional annual review cycles for any substantive signals is a fool’s game. After all, annual reviews are just that - once a year. As an exceptionally lagging indicator, annual reviews rarely come as surprises; and when they do, they are not helpful surprises. Far more typically, annual reviews consist of managers documenting myopic views of their direct reports’ performance for purposes of promotions and other incentives. This allows for the cherry-picking of examples of behavior to support a predetermined outcome or recommendation.

Even when comprehensive 360 review cycles are conducted, the inputs from colleagues are rarely an honest or timely representation of the consensus on one’s performance at work. This is chiefly because reviews are submitted by a small subset of coworkers and are neither trusted to be anonymous nor simple to complete. 

Understand, a key component of corporate success - individual employee performance - is yet to be properly measured.

of CEOs

of employees
and managers

think their organization's performance appraisal system is useful.

17% of people think their performance appraisals are open, honest and meaningful.
Only 22% of people always think their leader distinguishes between high and low performers.

Study Methodology:
A Leadership IQ study, surveying 48,012 employees, managers and CEOs on their thoughts around their annual performance appraisal process (aka. performance review, or annual performance ratings, etc.).

To paraphrase the old adage: What is not properly measured cannot be properly improved.

Real-time Visibility (RtV)

Fortunately, real-time insights about employee performance do exist. They already reside in the honest opinions of all coworkers with whom one interacts. To be sure, these opinions do change with time - just like an employee’s performance ebbs and flows. The complex and dynamic nature of an individual’s performance - the nuances of what it means to solve problems, support the team, prioritize accordingly, or show leadership - are indeed best represented by the sum total of honest, unfiltered, and recent perspectives of teammates.

Realize, a comprehensive view of an employee’s performance is already being collected, synthesized, and stored in the heads of one's teammates.

You could be the most authentic leader in your organization, and have honest, trusting relationships with all of your employees. Now, imagine that you had the time and patience to take every one of your employees out for a coffee chat. In the heat of open conversation, in the cold light of day, they each tell you about their coworkers, honestly. For instance, they tell you who they feel has really been pulling their weight on a project, or on the flip side, whom they perceive as corporate parasites - using others to advance personal agendas to the detriment of the team or company. In that same coffee-chat discussion, your employee also tells you how they really feel at work, and what they think is in need of change.

Imagine you had these chats with every employee, every week. In essence, such investment of time and effort would result in you, as the leader, completely tapping into the knowledge from "the grapevine". You would have reached near Real-time Visibility for yourself.

What if you could skip the coffee chats and still get to RtV?

Tech-enabled solutions - drawing upon cloud computing advancements, the latest in psychology and organizational behavior science, survey design, statistical and smart polling methodologies, and big data analytics - can theoretically bring out what is knowable in that Coffee Chat scenario to every decision maker in the organization. What’s more, the insights gathered can be appropriately disseminated to those who can benefit from it and those in a position to drive necessary change.

RtV in Employee Performance and Engagement means:

  • Ongoing measurements of how every employee is doing at work - based on the honest opinions of everyone they interact with at work;
  • Ongoing measurements of how employees feel at work and why - based on their honest feelings;
  • Ongoing, uninterrupted feedback loops to all employees on how their work is perceived and what they can do better to improve it.
  • The automatic, business-as-usual representation of insights to all relevant parties.

In short, RtV requires frequent, honest, participatory inputs to generate objective, automatic, distributed insights for relevant stakeholders.

Implications of RtV for Decision Making and
Behavioral Change

The impact of RtV in employee performance and engagement only begins with better decisions by leaders. The paradigm shift in visibility creates a whole new set of rules by which employees will get to play - rules that incentivize a virtuous cycle of cooperation, sincere contributions, and a focus on positive outcomes rather than good optics.

Fair, fast, impactful decisions:
RtV finally makes a leader’s job tenable.

In many ways, an organization behaves like a living organism. The organization’s health and performance changes over time, often deteriorating with age or weight. When people don’t feel healthy, they go to a doctor for help. For the organization - it is leaders who are asked to correct anything that is out of order.

Imagine having to find a cancer early, but having no access to any tests. Say you only have a seven-month old annual physical exam. Imagine having to conduct an open heart surgery, but you are blindfolded! Imagine needing to ask a patient about their intimate life - with their father in the room -and then expecting a truthful response!

This is akin to what we expect leaders to do every day for the organization. Leaders are supposed to find that cancer early - and remove it. They often have to make cuts - even if they feel blindfolded. They have to conduct some very uncomfortable conversations - yet hope for honest responses.

RtV ensures privacy in the room, removes the blindfold, and lets leaders have all of the tests and organizational scans they need to properly do their job. With RtV, leaders have a newfound ability to monitor and understand the organization’s dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses, with near scientific precision.

RtV unlocks decisive and timely leadership action, spanning:

  • Aligning teams to tasks and managers to teams;
  • Employee compensation and promotions;
  • Performance improvement plans and terminations;
  • Work culture and environment improvements.

Unlike the prevailing status quo, RtV enables leadership decisions that are grounded in the latest consensus view of employees - thus they come with a broad buy-in. With timely decisions aligned to employees’ true sentiment, the organization may consistently be steered to health.

From work to the work-ground
RtV enables employees to fulfill their true potential

The opposite of RtV is Informational Ambiguity (IA) - incomplete, biased, delayed, and debatable “truth” on which decisions in the organization are made. IA about performance and the true sentiment of employees towards the workplace is pervasive. Thus, employees must navigate IA in the organization to the best of their ability.

IA creates an environment wherein appearance is as good as, or even better than, reality. Accordingly, employees must focus their effort for maximum visibility to the people who matter - or sacrifice recognition and reward. Even more cynically, IA predicts that work efforts are less impactful to one’s advancement than personal favoritism. Within IA, mid-managers can successfully recommend mediocre but loyal (to them) employees for promotion.

Cumulatively, we have a name for the rule set created by IA - the game of office politics.

Incidentally, in this game of office politics, there are no real winners. Employees abandon their integrity and neuter much of their creativity. Office politics suffocates real feedback and corrupts sincere intentions.  And after playing in this game, we often come home feeling fatigued or discontent, stressed or anxious, unappreciated or guilty. In the process, even the best of political players lose the real purpose of work and miss their chance to fulfill their own potential. Instead, employees commit much of their time and energy on things they never studied or hoped to do “when they grow up”.

As the antidote to IA, Real-time Visibility has profoundly positive implications on how employees experience work. By its very presence, RtV ends Informational Ambiguity. The very culprit of why employees must play office politics in the first place is eliminated.

Replacing IA with RtV enables:

  • Employee voices - each and every one - to be accounted for;
  • Work to speak for itself; certainly work that impacts anyone in the organization;
  • Collaboration to be rewarded by the very way performance is measured;
  • Efforts to focus on productive, collaborative work, rather than the appearance of work;
  • Feedback to be honest, timely, and truly meaningful to employees;
  • Employees’ values, passions, and natural talents to quickly align to the projects they work on;
  • Leaders to be in sync with employees and enabled to consistently make the right calls.

It could be challenging to picture what RtV predicts for the workplace in the long run. For the closest analog of instant visibility and feedback, we may need to go back to our youth - when we engaged in play.

In play - be it sports, board games, or at the playground - we encountered none of the features of Informational Ambiguity. Indeed, games become unenjoyable at best and impossible at worst if they are subjected to unenforceable rules, poor measurements, or the resulting political gamesmanship.

In our youth, we brought forward our authentic selves - to have fun, make friends, test our abilities, and to improve as individuals and players. With clear rules, objective, measurable ways to win, and an instant feedback loop to understand how to improve, games are the best analogy for how work could feel when RtV is present.

The analogy of play fits for another reason. Objectively, work is the playground for adults: it is where we continuously master different skills, apply our talents, and make new friends along the way. The workplace is where we spend most of our productive waking moments, showcase our values, skills, and creativity and where we can strive for notoriety.

RtV holds the key to a new reality of the “work-ground”: where employees reconnect to the real purpose of work and have a clean shot at fulfilling their individual potential.

For organizations, a fully engaged, fulfilled employee base means a step-function improvement in productivity, retention, and operational efficiency. In the long run, RtV also promises to flatten organizational structures, produce more collaborative and empathetic leaders, and make organizations leaner - removing the vast majority of purely oversight roles and tasks required in the current paradigm of IA.


Part 2:
What Stands in the Way

In the long run, everyone benefits from Real-time Visibility (RtV): employees, managers, leaders, and the organization as a whole. RtV sets up a game with no losers. Even those employees who may be caught in the short-term realignment of talent to tasks and teams will eventually land in roles which would fit them better and bring them higher fulfillment.

Furthermore, the technology required to administer and analyze a system of surveys and showcase insights to appropriate parties is already in use elsewhere. Yet...

“Improving life at work isn’t rocket science, but the world is closer to colonizing Mars than it is to fixing the world’s broken workplaces”

Gallup - State of the Global Workplace 2022 report [5]

So what stands in the way? Why hasn’t the modern organization already transitioned to RtV? How is it that in the age of remote work, AI-powered productivity tools, and cutting-edge HR software solutions, the modern organization is still operating in Informational Ambiguity?

So what stands in the way? Why hasn’t the modern organization already transitioned to RtV? How is it that in the age of remote work, AI-powered productivity tools, and cutting-edge HR software solutions, the modern organization is still operating in Informational Ambiguity?

Self-Censorship in Responses

An HR leader with 39 years of experience in the field - spanning software, hardware, and real estate - described this barrier to me this way:

“Employees don’t really believe that HR-administered surveys are ever truly anonymous. Even when they are! Employees always feel like someone is looking over their shoulder”

They respond accordingly. In engagement surveys and certainly in performance reviews, employees are often put in the shoes of that patient whose father sits next to them in the doctor's office. The employee has to respond to these surveys; the issue is that such responses are not the honest reflection of the matter.

1 out of 5 employees felt comfortable being entirely truthful in their engagement surveys. [6]

Self-censorship to internally-administered surveys is endemic. Academics point to two primary factors that prevent employees from speaking up honestly: i) the fear that speaking up would prompt negative consequences, and ii) the belief that it would not bring about a change in the situation. [7]

RtV requires honest, truthful reflections on what employees observe and think. Therefore, prerequisites for RtV are i) trust that responses are always protected by anonymity, and ii) a belief that a change could be affected by providing honest responses.

Poorly designed or open-ended
measurement methodologies

RtV requires asking meaningful questions and asking them frequently. Today, organizations typically ask poorly worded and open-ended questions, rarely.

During annual reviews, employees are often asked to summarize an entire year of accomplishments and challenges for more coworkers than they could count on two hands. Reviewers are expected to remember concrete examples and to write thoughtfully, with the full awareness that a manager or the employee themselves will read with some judgment or further questions for the reviewers. Furthermore, even if well-intentioned, annual reviews are highly susceptible to volatility - at the mercy of inevitable variables like the mood of the reviewer that day, the time crunch in which they find themselves, or even the order in which they are written.

In contrast to annual reviews, engagement surveys typically employ standardized questions. However, these questions are phrased in ways to presumably maximize precision, including answer choices of the “somewhat agree” or “neither agree nor disagree” kind. By the time an employee reaches question #24 on the semi-annual engagement survey, they’re hard pressed to be in the mental space to answer honestly or think deeply about the question. They become survey fatigued.

Annual reviews and even engagement surveys have become a dreaded fact of life in the organization. A key reason is that they are a lot of work - the questions are too open-ended (in the case of annual reviews) or there are just too many of them (in the case of engagement surveys). If the measurement methodologies feel burdensome, then they cannot be administered often: they will simply fall on deaf ears.

Custom administration of reviews
and engagement surveys

RtV requires continual surveying of what employees know with insights delivered to the right parties seamlessly. Yet, in the modern organization, HR is burdened with the very custom administration of both annual reviews and engagement surveys. This poses a substantial barrier to RtV: how could the organization have RtV if the very act of collecting and analyzing data is complex and time-consuming?

Indeed, this is largely why the modern organization is stuck with annual, or at best, semi-annual performance reviews. The process of completing them is onerous, especially for managers and 360 review submitters. In addition, HR and department heads have to manually aggregate and make sense of the information in a process called calibration. Engagement surveys, while easier to complete, often take weeks or even months to be fully developed and then analyzed - with insights delivered manually over a series of HR or manager-led meetings.

In the absence of a standardized, business-as-usual, automatically administered and analyzed system of internal surveys, the modern organization is left with time-consuming, constantly changing, and rarely administered reviews and surveys.

Continuous Engagement with
RtV Tools by Employees

The last barrier is a hypothetical one. It presents itself only once an RtV tool has already been put in place in an organization. Since RtV requires ongoing engagement with automatically administered, standardized surveys, it is speculative to predict whether employees will meaningfully engage as required.

We have reasons to be optimistic on this front, however. After all, employees already do engage with their employer’s engagement surveys and annual reviews. Unlike direct-to-consumer solutions, an employer-sponsored RtV tool can be internally promoted, with employers tying certain incentives to completion metrics.

Another key lever in overcoming this barrier is design. A best-in-class survey, designed with ease of completion in mind can go a long way towards increasing completion rates.

RtV brings forth insights that drive better and timelier decisions and produces valuable real-time feedback to employees themselves. As a result, one could expect virtuous, self-reinforcing incentives to build up and ensure continuous engagement with the RtV tool.


Part 3:
World's First Organizational MRI

During my professional career - spanning financial services, strategy consulting, product management, and product marketing - I bore witness to the effects of Informational Ambiguity (IA) in organizations: the epidemic of unfulfilled talent, ill-advised decisions, and the resulting disengagement among employees. I never wanted to succumb to the game of office politics, because I saw first-hand the negative impact it has on the organization, on the broader company culture, and on one’s intrinsic motivation.

Led by a strong desire for efficiency and fairness, I kept looking for ways that can systemically improve the workplace. I started to realize that the real culprit for why we are all stuck in the game of office politics is the IA we all take for granted.

It took me more than a decade to come to the insights outlined above. Fortunately, these insights pointed a way forward. I’m now convinced that RtV is within reach for any organization, thanks to Mirror 360’s Organizational MRI.

The Why: Game Change to a Better Workplace

I founded Mirror 360 in order to change the game we have to play at work, forever. The game of jockeying for positions or dodging bullets; the game of staying visible or invisible; being cautious; taking credit; and making bosses look good. Because in this game of office politics, there are no real winners. Yet, we play this game in any organization with IA - read any organization of size. Regardless of industry, culture, or time period, this game doesn’t change. Until now.

Mirror 360 was born out of a clear vision for what RtV means for the near future of work. Namely, what we at Mirror 360 call “a better workplace.”

A better workplace is where:

  • Work is visible automatically and people’s voices are continuously audible to the highest levels of the organization.
  • Leaders are in sync, because they draw from the same, definitive source of truth on performance and fulfillment at work.
  • Decisions are timely, grounded in truth, and thus effective in helping to steer the organization to health.
  • Mismatches of: skills to assignments; passions to jobs; and personalities to teams are quickly corrected for - so no one ever feels out of place.
  • Teammates work together and are intrinsically invested in each other’s success.
  • Mastery of political gamesmanship has no bearing on one’s advancement, and horrible bosses are no more.

In this better workplace, employees are fulfilled in their work because their talents and passions are aligned to the work they do, decisions are fair, and their coworkers are incentivized to help.

The What: A Real-Time Visibility Tool

Mirror 360 has designed and built its SaaS-based Mirror Imaging (MRI) methodology with RtV in mind. Our always-anonymized, truly-continuous, automatically-run system of standardized surveys and reports brings the modern organization into the near future of work as outlined in Part 1.

Organizations can now deploy Mirror 360’s RtV tool to deliver eye-opening visibility to managers and leaders so they are never blindsided - about who really performs and how employees truly feel about their workplace. Timely and actionable insights are also automatically provided to every employee, including the first-of-their-kind mirror images at work. 

The How: Organizational MRI,
generated automatically

At its core, Mirror 360’s Organizational MRI is a purpose-driven, thoughtfully designed, marketed, and onboarded SaaS (Software-as-a-Service), which includes several modules that reinforce each other. Taken together, this self-running system brings RtV to teams or the organization as a whole.

Input #1:

360 reflections: standardized, randomly sampled, anonymous, continuous polling of employees on how they perceive the performance of each other as of late. Determined by the proximity of work relations, these reflections are machine-generated at the appropriate cadence for statistical significance. Employees respond to reflection invitations and cannot proactively initiate them. Expiring within a week, email invitations have a clear call-to-action and lead to a survey designed to be completed quickly or on the go (taking just seconds to complete). There are six standard questions that comprise the 360 reflection, starting with a simple universal opener:

What follows are five “deep reflection” questions measuring whether they: Communicate Well, Solve Problems, Fit on the Team, Follow High Standards, and Show Leadership. These represent a proprietary framework for what determines success at work - regardless of industry or seniority level. The questions were created on the basis of dozens of research studies and HR practices, and are notably action phrases - consistent with the intent of Mirror 360 to capture how people show up at work, rather than how they are as people.

Finally, the 360 reflection includes an open-ended text box for “anything the employee should know”. This is a quick, anonymous channel to raise flags and uncover blindspots. By design, open-ended feedback submissions are seen by the employee ONLY.

Communicates well

Consider their willingness to listen, openness to feedback, capacity to respond in a thoughtful and respectful manner, and ability to initiate important conversations

Not at all
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Input #2:

Self-reflections: a weekly pulse check on each employee's fulfillment at work. Arriving in inboxes every Friday, these reflection invitations are automatically created. They draw from dozens of carefully curated questions, organized in 10 categories and phrased to elicit honest, emotional-more-than-analytical responses. To entice continual engagement with these surveys, Mirror 360 makes the visibility of the employee's self-awareness report contingent on the completion of the self-reflection.

Weekly self-reflections turn it into business-as-usual for employees to speak up about what works and doesn’t work for them in the workplace (i.e. how satisfied they are with their pay, training, teams, etc.)

Output: Real-time Visibility, delivered automatically

It all comes together in a set of dashboards that instantly empower users to take appropriate action. Due to the system-wide standardization of 360 and self-reflections, Mirror 360’s automatically - generated insights go well beyond a dump of data averages and trends. Instead, Mirror 360's Organizational MRI takes a “so-what” approach in the visualization of results.

Mirror 360 analyzes vast sets of underlying data, weighs them in time, and packages them into intuitive illustrations that speak to users of all professional backgrounds and sophistication. The goal of this prepackaged analysis of data, digested and presented to users in a delightful way, is to make the MRI’s interpretation as easy as seeing one's image in the mirror.

- For the employee: a mirror image on how one shows up at work

It begins with our proprietary Mirror Image - the cumulative representation of all 360 reflections over the latest 200-day period. Each ray of light represents a single reflection, with the color corresponding to the positivity or negativity of that reflection.  The direction, from which reflections come, corresponds to the seniority of the person providing the reflection - up, down or laterally in the organizational pyramid or even outside of the organization. The length of each ray corresponds to the recency of that reflection - those from a while back slowly fading away - just as they gradually weigh less in the calculation of the M360 Performance Score itself. In a single image, the employee can glean how they show up to work for others. The Mirror Image visualization is designed not as a graph one needs to read, but as an image to create an impression and tell a story.

The Real-time Visibility for employees only begin with their Mirror Image. In the following section of their self-awareness report, employees see their perceived areas of strengths and weaknesses:

Further down their personalized dashboard, employees can read the latest honest, qualitative, feedback from coworkers - what others want them to know, but often wouldn't say out loud. They can track how their performance and fulfillment at work have been trending. What's more, they can clearly see the areas of their job which make them more or less fulfilled at work.

The self-awareness report ends with helpful food for thought: AI-generated coaching for what the employee can incorporate in their daily interactions to improve - customized to the employee based on everything in their mirror.

- For the leader: the source of truth on performance and fulfillment

A set of dashboards produced as part of the Organizational MRI becomes a central source of truth for any manager and leaders.

On the performance side:

Leaders see the consensus opinion scatterplot for all of their reports - direct and indirect. Across the x axis of absolute performance and y axis of change in performance over time, leaders can clearly see the group of so-to-speak shining stars (members of the team with stellar performance and still improving), rising stars, and those who can more appropriately be classified as falling stars, or even fading stars.

Leaders easily see the most senior members of their team, showing up visibly larger on the scatter plot - drawing the attention to where it should be. Each of these dots on the screen, representing an employee, is clickable - with key supporting deep-dive information on each: their latest mirror image, their strengths and weaknesses across the five standard dimensions.

Indeed, the first two performance sections from the weekly insights (prepared specifically for each employee) are also visible to managers. But they’re also seen by their manager, and the managers all the way up the chain of command. Middle managers can no longer become the bottleneck for information flow. Visibility is automatic up the chain.

Nevertheless, Mirror 360 enables visibility only within one’s sub-org’s team performance.  As a result, measuring performance via Mirror 360 does not become a contest between departments and across teams. The organizational MRI remains a diagnostics tool available to decision makers on a need-to-know basis.

On the fulfillment side:

Managers can monitor the sense of fulfillment at work: on their team, in their department, by any department, and for the company as a whole. Leaders see how fulfillment for each group has changed in time, and what drives these changes. They can understand the drivers of fulfillment by category, such as direction, autonomy, or compensation.

With the MIR's Fulfillment Dashboard, leaders have an ongoing pulse check on how their workforce is feeling at work. With separate sections on turnover signals and qualitative feedback (i.e. the chatter from the grapevine), leaders can stay in sync with the sentiment of their teams.

With RtV powered by Mirror 360, leaders can now make better decisions while employees may fulfill their full potential at work. Organizational MRI is about a step-function improvement in productivity.

It Is Now Upon Us…

Informational Ambiguity (IA) around employee performance and fulfillment should no longer be considered a depressing fact of life. It is now a solvable problem, thanks to the first all-in Real-time Visibility (RtV) tool: Mirror 360’s Organizational MRI.

Replacing IA with RtV in organizations has profoundly positive implications: for the quality of leadership decisions, the level of employee fulfillment at work, and the health of the organization as a whole. Thanks to RtV, the near future of work can most succinctly be described as a better workplace.

It is now upon us.

Ask yourself this: “How could I bring RtV to my workplace?”

As a founder, a board member, an investor, a CEO, an HR leader, a team lead, or an engaged employee - you have a role to play and a lot to gain from RtV.

What stands in the way to a better workplace are inertia, inaction, and apathy. Take action instead: spread the message and build a coalition for RtV in your workplace.

Contact a Mirror 360 Ambassador
for help and next steps

Take Action Now

Let’s change the game we have to play at work, together!

- Petar Kralev, Founder of Mirror 360

  1. Butner, Karen. “Automation and the future of work.” IBM. Accessed 4 February 2023.
  2. Colford, Christopher. “Productivity for prosperity: 'In the long run, it is almost everything.'” World Bank Blogs, 15 November 2016. Accessed 4 February 2023.
  3. Olmstead, Levi. “How to Evaluate & Measure Employee Performance (+Key Metrics).” Whatfix, 22 December 2021, Accessed 4 February 2023.
  4. Murphy, Mark. “Performance Appraisal: New Data Reveals Why Employees And Managers Dislike Them.” Leadership IQ, Accessed 4 February 2023.
  5. “State of the Global Workplace Report.” Gallup,  Accessed 4 February 2023.
  6. “What Do Employee Engagement Surveys Tell You About Employee Experience?” Gartner, 24 January 2020, Accessed 4 February 2023.
  7. Adamska, Krystyna. “Come and say what you think: reducing employees’ self-censorship through procedural and interpersonal justice.” Current issues in personality psycholog, vol. 9(4), no. 2021, 2021, Accessed 4 February 2023.